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京剧历史 History of Peking Opera

时间:2007-06-10 20:38:48 来源:不详 作者:佚名

    清朝乾隆五十五年(公元1790年),来自中国南方的四大徽班陆续进入北京。第一个进京的徽班是以唱“二黄”声腔为主的“三庆”,由于其声腔及剧目都很丰富,逐渐压倒了当时盛行于北京的秦腔。许多秦腔班演员转入徽班,形成徽秦两腔的融合。随后,另外三个徽班:“四喜”、“春台”和“和春”也来到北京,使盛行多年的昆剧逐渐衰落,昆剧演员也多转入徽班。到了清朝道光年间湖北演员进京,带来了楚调(汉调、西皮调),在京师与徽班造成了西皮与二黄合流,形成所谓的“皮黄戏”。此时在京师里形成的皮黄戏,受到北京语音与腔调的影响,有了“京音”的特色。后来由于他们经常到上海演出,上海人就把这种带有北京特点的皮黄戏叫做“京戏”,也叫“京剧”。又由于京剧在京师的迅速发展,使其艺术水平在中国戏曲中名列前茅,后来在全中国流行,所以也被称为“国剧”。
History of Peking Opera
With its fascinating and artistic accompanying music, singing and costumes, the Peking Opera is China's national opera. Full of Chinese cultural facts, the opera presents the audience with an encyclopedia of Chinese culture, as well as unfolding stories, beautiful paintings, exquisite costumes, graceul gestures and martial arts. Since Peking Opera enjoys a higher reputation than other local operas, almost every province in China has more than one Peking Opera troupe. Opera is so popular among Chinese people, especially seniors, that even "Peking Opera Month" has been declared.

Peking Opera has a 200-year-long history. Its main melodies originated from Xipi and Erhuang in Anhui and Hubei respectively and, over time, techniques from many other local operas were incorporated into Peking Opera.

It is believed that Peking Opera gradually came into being after 1790 when the famous four Anhui opera troupes came to Beijing. Peking Opera underwent fast development during the reign of Emperor Qianlong and the notorious Empress Dowager Cixi under the imperial patron, eventually becoming more accessible to the common people.
In ancient times, Peking Opera was performed mostly on stage in the open air, teahouses or temple courtyards. Since the orchestra played loudly, the performers developed a piercing style of song that could be heard by everyone. The costumes were a garish collection of sharply contrasting colors to stand out on the dim stage illuminated only by oil lamps. Peking Opera is a harmonious combination of the Grand Opera, ballet and acrobatics, consisting of dance, dialogue, monologues, martial arts and mime.
The Peking Opera band mainly consists of an orchestra and percussion band. The former frequently accompanies peaceful scenes while the latter provides the right atmosphere for battle scenes. The commonly used percussion instruments include castanets, drums, bells and cymbals. One person usually plays the castanets and drum simultaneously, which conduct the entire band. The orchestral instruments include the Erhu, Huqin, Yueqin, Sheng (reed pipe), Pipa (lute) and other instruments. The band usually sits on the left side of the stage.

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